Young Adults and Unique Identity Theft Issues

Young Adults and Unique Identity Theft Issues

As more people have embraced technology, more opportunities for identity theft have been created.  PC Magazine author Larry Seltzer interviewed a cyber-crimes expert and found that there are some unique new ways that people have their identities stolen.  One of the things that may come as a surprise is that misconfigured peer-to-peer apps like Limewire can share information from your “My Documents” folder.

While you may be hip to the Nigerian scams, you may not be aware of skimmers on ATMs that can read your credit cards. Seltzer explains, “These are devices which install over the reader appear to be part of the machine. When you insert your card the skimmer reads it and records the information on it. They are often used in combination with surreptitious cameras to record the keys you press for the PIN. Skimmers are especially popular on gas pump, but they are also being used on the smaller point of sale readers found in stores.”

CNN Money reported that the top consumer complaint is identity fraud.  “The Federal Trade Commission counted 250,854 complaints about identity theft in 2010, according to a report issued Tuesday. That was 19% of the 1.3 million total complaints the agency received, putting it at the top of the consumer complaint list for the 11th year in a row. The most common form of identity theft was through fraudulent government documents. Credit card fraud garnered the second highest number of identity theft complaints, followed by phone and utilities fraud.”

Many young adults are going back to school soon.  College students may feel they are invincible and not notice identity theft as quickly as they should.  They are less likely to track their bank accounts and credit card statements.  Mainstreet.com reported, “Studies have shown that it takes 18- to 24-year-old Americans twice as long to find out they’ve been the victim of I.D. fraud – which is usually too late to do anything about it.”

Wells Fargo has come up with tips for college students to safeguard their financial information.

Fraudpreventionunit.org also has listed 10 Tips for an Identity-Theft Free 2011.

Defaulting on a Mortgage: How it Affects Your Credit Score

Many consumers have taken a financial hit with the recent economic climate.  As more people are defaulting on their home loans, it is interesting to see the impact on FICO scores. 

What may be a surprise is how many wealthy people with good credit are going into foreclosure.  A recent article by the Arizona Republic mentioned how affluent, savvy homeowners are choosing to default on their home loans based on weighing the pros and cons to such a decision.  “Recent research suggests that affluent people tend to be the main strategic defaulters, and these individuals are also the ones who would sustain more serious credit-score damage.  This chart shows the resulting credit scores for two hypothetical consumers – one with an average initial score of 680 on the FICO scale and another with a high initial score of 780.”

Situation Initial 680 Score Initial 780 Score
     
30 days late on mortgage 600-620 670-690
90 days late on mortgage 600-620 650-670
Short sale, no deficiency 610-630 655-675
Short sale with deficiency or foreclosure 575-595 620-640
Bankruptcy 530-550 540-560

The savvy homeowner that sees their home investment as a money pit, may go ahead and buy what they perceive as a better home  purchase, perhaps a short sale, before they default on their original investment.  In this way, they have good credit to purchase the new home before they take the hit to their credit score caused by the default of their original home purchase.

New Study Shows Young Adults Find Power in Debt: Lack of Education to Blame

In recent research published in the journal Social Science Research, the data showed that young adults aged 18-27 actually felt empowered by having debt.  They felt that it increased their self-esteem and made them feel in control of their lives.  Because they were able to attain goals of buying things, they perceived this as a good thing.

ScienceDaily reported, “The study involved 3,079 young adults who participated in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 — Young Adults sample. The NLSY interviews the same nationally representative group of Americans every two years. It is conducted by Ohio State’s Center for Human Resource Research on behalf of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.”

The young adults who had less money to begin with, felt more empowered by this new found ability to purchase things.  “Results showed that those in the bottom 25 percent in total family income got the largest boost from holding debt — the more debt they held, both education and credit card, the bigger the positive impact on their self-esteem and mastery.”

The study found that as young adults became older, they had a more realistic idea of what this debt was doing to their lives.  By age 28-34, the stress caused by the debt was starting to be felt.

The results of this study back up what has been called a movement toward an instant gratification society.  The Arizona Republic reported, “Many young adults might feel good about incurring debt because it lets them purchase desired items without having to delay gratification.  They are happy they can actually get credit and feel more like adults now.  .  .But they don’t actually understand what that entails.”

Eventually the bills start piling up and these young adults will have to face the consequences of paying off what they have charged.

How did this generation get to this point?  Lack of education may be to blame. Here is a reprint of an article I wrote several years ago that addressed this problem:

Lack of Education to Blame for Financial Crisis 

The current financial crisis is entirely our fault.  We are a nation of financially-ignorant people doing crazy things like buying a $450,000 home on a $40,000 a year salary with a 120% loan. How in the world did we think that this was OK?  What are we doing to be sure that this won’t happen again?  People are sick of reading about bad news and the economy. They’d rather just put their heads in the sand and hope Obama is here to save the day. Well I’m here to tell you, if we don’t change the way we teach personal finance to the youth in our country, we will have learned nothing from this economic disaster and future generations are doomed to repeat our mistakes.

FROM AN EDUCATOR’S PERSPECTIVE

Having taught college business students for many years, I am horrified by the lack of personal finance training our youth receives.  Should it be up to the young adult to learn this on their own? There are a lot of books on personal finance out there.  If you hang out at a bookstore and watch the type of people who are reading them, however, you will notice it is not the young generation purchasing them.  It is usually the 30 and older crowd that has now found themselves in financial straits and want to know how to get out of it.  The younger generation doesn’t realize that they need this knowledge yet.  Their parents probably never taught them because they probably have a limited understanding of personal finance themselves.  How can we expect parents to teach children something they never learned in the first place?

Shouldn’t personal finance be something we learn in high school and college to prepare us for our financial futures?  Arizona State University’s W.P. Carey School of Business has a good reputation.  I use that as an example because that is where I received my BS in Business.   Business Week lists ASU in its 2007 rankings as 66th out of the top 100 business schools.  I am not trying to pick on ASU because it is a wonderful school.  However, last semester they offered only one course that addressed personal finance and retirement planning.  Only three sections of this course were even offered.  For one of the largest business schools in the US, there was not much of a focus on educating our youth to be financially savvy.   ASU only required that business minors take this course.

I recently ordered the textbook that ASU uses for this course. I love to read all I can read about personal finance; I realize that I am not typical in that regard.  However, even with my keen interest in the subject, just looking through this text, I was so bored!  If I see the words “net present value of money” . . .  even I want to run.  I just don’t think that it teaches the types of things young people need to know in a way that would spark their interest.  This text is busy with charts, pictures, numbers and balance sheets.  A young adult that isn’t savvy in math might get immediately turned off by that.  To be fair, this course is offered to business majors who are probably decent in math.  However, what about the rest of the students who are not?  Why are we only teaching personal finance to business majors?  Granted, it is a class that is open to everyone, but it is not required.  To me, this text would be a “next level” type of teaching tool for those who understand the basics already.  Unfortunately if ASU is typical of what other schools offer, they are missing the boat of what it takes to reach the average student.

Even if some form of money management is taught before college, part of the problem stems with allowing kids to be able to advance through school without passing tests to prove their personal finance knowledge.  Dr. Danielle Babb, author, entrepreneur and professor who appears frequently on national television and radio claims, “Kids shouldn’t be allowed to move on if they haven’t mastered the basics.”  Unfortunately many are learning about finance the hard way.  Right now that may be through watching the collapse of the current economy. As Dr. Babb pointed out, “Right now an entire generation is learning about markets; that they don’t just go up – they can go down, too.”

Paula Zobisch, Ph.D., a well-respected professor who teaches business at ten online universities, agreed that this issue needs to be addressed.  When asked how she felt about the personal finance education that our youth is receiving she responded, “Sure, let us lean on the high educational institutions to teach financial management, but let us not also forget high school. And even more importantly, let us remember parents who could teach financial management by giving younger children an allowance and then guiding the management of that allowance. Financial management begins long before college.”

 

Fox News (2009) reported 48% of high school seniors correctly answered finance and economics questions.

This is not to say that more colleges and universities aren’t realizing the importance of teaching personal finance.  In fact, universities such as Lynn University, University of Cincinnati, Kent State, Fairfield University, Scripps College and Texas State all are among the colleges offering courses in personal finance and money-management.  However, some universities have had some convenient relationships with credit card companies which seem at odds with teaching fiscal responsibility.

New York Times recently featured a story about how colleges profit from marketing credit cards to their students.  Michigan State University came under fire as it was noted that they allowed Bank of America to offer advertising items to their students to sign up for banking and credit services.  In fact, according that the New York Times (2008) “Bank America’s relationship with the university extends well beyond marketing at sports events.  The bank has $8.4 million, seven-year contract with Michigan State giving it access to the students’ names and addresses and use of the university’s logo.  The more students who take the banks’ credit cards, the more money the university gets.  Under certain circumstances, Michigan State even stands to receive more money if students carry a balance on these cards.”

If we step back to look at our children’s personal finance education even before college, it is interesting to check out the National Standards (2007) in K-12 personal finance education.  The standards define financial literacy as “the ability to use knowledge and skills to manage one’s financial resources effectively for life time financial security”.  The standards include areas such as financial responsibility, planning and money management, credit card and debt, as well as saving and investing.  Some of the 12th grade goals include having the ability to “analyze how economic, social-cultural, and political conditions can affect income and career potential” as well as “explain the effect on take-home pay of changing the allowances claimed on an employee’s withholding allowance certificate (IRS form W-4).  What they don’t really cover is how much time they are devoting to these topics.

 

The National Standards are created by the JumpStart Coalition for Personal Financial Literacy in Washington, DC.

There are educators and organizations set up that are trying to do something about educating our youth.  The DuPont Fund is one of these organizations. In 2008 this organization created a presentation to increase awareness of the lack of financial literacy.  In that program, the author addressed the areas that required attention.  “There are three parts to a successful financial literacy education program. (1) Quality Financial Education Products (2) Qualified and Trained Financial Educators (3) Evaluation Program in Place to Measure Results” (Lindfield, 2009).  If we do not have quality financial education products, then we are limiting the educators’ ability to reach this group of students.

FROM A YOUTH’S PERSPECTIVE

Having two grown daughters and after teaching for 6 different universities online, I personally have not found too many students who can meet many of the required standards.  If we have set guidelines for what seems to be admirable goals in educating our youth, why haven’t the graduating high school and college seniors learned these important lessons?  There are several reasons.  These schools may only be devoting a small amount of time to very important topics.  It is also quite possible that personal finance is the last thing on their minds while attending school.  They can’t even relate to it yet.  Lastly, when and if they actually do receive personal finance training, it is usually in a format that is hard for them to digest.

Many financial websites like Charles Schwab’s have some interesting statistics on how our youth view the importance of personal finance training. “Among the ideas tested, young people believe providing incentives for states to mandate financial education in schools is the most important step the Obama Administration can take to improve financial literacy.” (Schwab, 2009).  In fact, studies are showing that facing future demands without a financial education is a source of serious concern for young adults.  “Seven in 10 (71%) are “very concerned” about the country’s economic future. More than half (53%) are “very concerned” about their personal financial future” (Schwab, 2009).

The US Census Bureau (2009) predicts there will be 18.4 million college students this fall.

Part of the problem with educating our youth about personal finance is that books on the subject are written in an unfriendly or boring manner.  Even the books that are aimed at a young audience can be in question and answer format or simply read like text books.  When something is so far-removed from what they deal with on a daily basis as personal finance is in those early years, it must be taught in a way that allows young people to picture themselves in situations that they could relate to. It’s critical to sell them on the idea of the importance of understanding personal finance.

Having been in sales for over 25 years, I learned many tricks for things to do to “sell my point” so that customers would want my solution.  When I was in pharmaceutical sales, part of my sales training was to paint a picture in the doctor’s mind. If our youth is taught personal finance through picture painting or storytelling, perhaps they will learn more. Techniques like placing images in their heads are important for the person to get the point you are trying to get across.  If I told the doctor to prescribe my drugs because they were good, I got nowhere (this is what the traditional personal finance book does).  If I told them that their patient would be calling them at midnight complaining about migraines or inability to breathe if he didn’t prescribe my drugs, then he had a picture and more reason to do it because he didn’t want to be disturbed in the middle of the night. We need to paint the picture of why personal finance is important in students’ minds.

It is important to get the message of personal finance responsibility in front of the next generation so that they don’t end up the way previous generations are now, having to file bankruptcy or losing their homes.  By targeting our high school and college students with education that delivers the message in a picture-painted storytelling format to explain the importance of personal finance, perhaps the next generation will avoid the tragedies that we are all dealing with now.  To do this, we need to focus on creating educational materials that are delivering the message in a way that allows us to meet the standards that we have set for our youth.

FROM A POLITICAL PERSPECTIVE

Every day there is another article or news story about families facing foreclosures or bankruptcy.  According to Realty Trac there were more than 3.1 million foreclosures filed in 2008.   Even if people were able to keep their homes, suddenly they are upside down, owing more than it is worth.  We have over 3.5 million homeless people in the US.  If we are fortunate enough to still have a job . . . that may be all we have.  Those of us who had our retirement savings in a 401k are now wondering what we will do when we retire.  As we watch our life savings dwindle away with the falling stock market, shouldn’t we be thinking about how we got here and how we could have avoided this in the first place?

 

RealtyTrac (2009) data shows a steep include in foreclosure activity.

There are foundations and coalitions that focus their attention on such issues.  The New America Foundation addresses challenges facing future generations. Their site has had articles addressing the importance of utilizing what we have learned throughout this crisis to teach our youth.  “Such moments of financial trouble are teachable opportunities for children and youth to learn about personal finance, and to improve their own money management skills.  However, comprehensive strategies for educating children and youth about personal finance so that they can successfully navigate a complex financial market place have not yet emerged.” (Lopez-Fernandini & Murrell, 2008).

The problem is that changing the education system is no easy task.  Proposals must be made.  Money must be spent.  I recently sent a letter to Arne Duncan with the U. S. Department of Education, explaining my concern about the current lack of personal finance education for our youth. I explained I would like to propose a solution.  What did I get back?  I received a form letter commending my interest in education but politely stating that I should check out the Excellence in Economic Education (EEC, 2009) program already in place.  At the site, you can download current information about national programs currently in place.  According to the EEC, there was $1,447,267 worth of appropriations available for 2008 allotted to personal finance education.  Making grants available is a good start. But what about addressing the problems in the school’s curriculum?

Obviously the current programs are not working.  If we are not open to looking at alternative solutions to our current lack of education our children are receiving, aren’t we doomed to repeat our past mistakes?  I realize the government has its hands full with the current crisis.  However, our government may need to learn from its past mistakes.  Isn’t the definition of insanity doing the same thing over and over and expecting a different result?  By not addressing the problems within our educational system, we are doomed to repeat our past mistakes.

Related Articles:

Bad Credit Causing More Unemployment

How to Reinvent Your Career by Dr. Diane Hamilton
Think about the person who is trying very hard to find that new job.  They may have missed a few payments due to being out of work.  This has caused their credit to be less than stellar.  If they should find that perfect job, the future employer will run their credit.  If the credit score comes back as low, their chances for getting the job are damaged.  It is a vicious cycle.

Here’s how particular events could affect a person with a 780 credit score and someone with a 680 credit score:

Initial score 780 680
Maxed credit card 735-755 650-670
30-day delinquency 670-690 600-620
Settled a credit card for less than what’s owed 655-675 615-635
Foreclosure 620-640 575-595
Bankruptcy 540-560 530-550

Source: MyFICO.com

The Arizona Republic reported today that The Society of Human Resources Management showed: 60% of employers conducted credit checks on job applicants in 2010.  Of this figure, 47% have done so only for candidates for select jobs and 13% have done so for all job candidates. 

What can you do to avoid having your credit score drop?   Jahna Berry stated the following in today’s Arizona Republic:  “If you’re headed for financial problems, carefully consider how missed mortgage payments, overdue bills or a bankruptcy filing could affect your credit report and your future job prospects, several employment experts said. Seek out help and look for options that will protect your credit.”

New Businesses Not Getting Loan Approval

A survey by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York shows that small businesses in the area are not getting the loans they are applying for this year.  Businessweek.com reported, “Of the 59 percent of businesses responding to the poll that applied for credit in the first half of 2010, only half got any loan approval at all, and three quarters said their full borrowing needs were not met. (The PDF of the report is available here.)”

In the entrepreneurial courses I teach, my students discuss the issues a new start-up must face.  Raising capital may be one of the most difficult hurdles right now.  Part of the problem stems from not having collateral to secure the loans.  If this is the case, it may be possible to obtain a loan through merchant services. Credit cards with cash advances may be an option.   

Articlebase.com suggests there are other things you can do to qualify for a loan.  “First you need to identify which among the many types of small business loans you need. Small business loans ranging from $5,000.00 to $35,000.00 are called micro loans. For larger needs, such as for the acquisition of land, buildings and other major fixed assets, development financing is what you should find. There are also import export loans as well as franchise financing. Do your research to find out if you are qualified for small business loans guaranteed by the U.S. Small Business Administration or SBA.” 

There is some positive news.  According to Finance.yahoo.com, “Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke said in a speech on Friday that there have been some “positive signs” in the credit conditions for small businesses. “In particular, banks are no longer tightening lending standards and terms and are reportedly becoming more proactive in seeking out creditworthy borrowers,” he said.”

What is Google Checkout? How Does it Compare to PayPal?

According to their site, Google Checkout allows you to:

Stop creating multiple accounts and passwords. With Google Checkout™ you can quickly and easily buy from stores across the web and track all your orders and shipping in one place.

Shop with confidence. Our fraud protection policy covers you against unauthorized purchases made through Google Checkout, and we don’t share your purchase history or full credit card number with sellers.

Control commercial spam. You can keep your email address confidential, and easily turn off unwanted emails from stores where you use Google Checkout.

If you want to hear testimonials from Google Checkout customers, click here.

Some of the things they are saying about Google Checkout is that it is:

  • Fast and Easy
  • Safe and Secure
  • Protects Personal Information
  • Helps Buyers Resolve Issues
  • Allowing Shopping With Confidence

If you would like to take a tour of or see a short video about Google Checkout, click here.

Once you sign up, they offer a deals page where you can find discounts from many different stores.

How does Google Checkout compare to Paypal?

Check out this excerpt article from an article on bestshoppingcartreviews.com:

Basic overview of Google Checkout vs. PayPal

There are some areas that can be used to determine which payment processor is best for you. This is a comparison of how they stack up in Google Checkout vs. PayPal:

  • How customers can make payments. With Google Checkout, customers can only use the credit or debit card. It is possible for customers to store this information in order to avoid entering it every time. PayPal, on the other hand, allows for credit card payment or deduction from a bank account. eCheck capability is also available. In this way, PayPal is more diverse.
  • Rate merchant reliability. For many online shoppers, it is important to know that you are reputable. Both Google Checkout and PayPal rate merchants.
  • International shopping. PayPal has a definite edge in this area. Google Checkout is only available for U.S. purchases. PayPal, on the otherhand, is accepted in 55 countries. In addition to the U.S. dollar, PayPal also accepts the euro, the pound, the Canadian dollar, the yen and the Australian dollar. Currency exchange is also available (for a fee).
  • Security. Both Google Checkout and PayPal offer SSL security on the same level that banks do.
  • Fraud protection. PayPal only offers fraud protection for sales of more than $50. Google offers 100% refund, but you must report within 60 days. There have been complaints about PayPal’s payment resolution process as well.
  • Fees for accepting payments on your business Web site. Depending on the level of you account with PayPal, you pay 1.9 percent to 2.9 percent of your sales, and sometimes you pay 30 cents per transaction. Google Checkout is 2% of sales, plus 20 cents per transaction. However, with Google, you can use your AdWords account to reduce the cost of your transaction fees. This arrangement does not exist with PayPal.
  • Customer service. It is worth noting that PayPal offers a customer service line with live people (you can call a phone number). It can be difficult to contact Google Checkout customer service in any way besides the forum provided or email.

One of the main advantages that Google Checkout has is its integration with AdWords. This means that you can get preferred pricing on a number of services – and even automatically pay transaction fees with earnings from your AdWord account. Additionally, when your ad is displayed on other Web pages and in search engine results, a shopping cart icon appears so that it is easy to see that you accept Google Checkout, offering a possible way to increase sales.

With PayPal business merchant account, a great many of the advantages come in the fact that more people use PayPal, and that there is a range of services and features available that include invoicing, statements, shipping and tax calculations and customer options.

You should carefully consider your needs before deciding on whether or not to go with Google Checkout or PayPal. How you run your business, and the kinds of features and services you want should be factors in which payment processor you use.

Our Kids’ Financial Futures Are At Stake

The sky is falling. We hear about it every day. The stock market is plunging, the housing bubble has exploded, and the list of doom and gloom goes on and on. How did we get here? We consider ourselves a bright nation. Why then, didn’t we see this coming? Did we get too greedy? Did we lose our common sense? Perhaps it was a little of both. What is important is what we have learned from our mistakes and the knowledge we pass down to our children to help them avoid a similar fate.

Unfortunately our children may end up sinking in our same boat. Even if they go to college, the personal finance education they will receive will be slim to none. While in college, our children are finding themselves more in debt than any past generations. Think about some of the financial statistics for our youth:

  • 76% of undergraduate students have credit cards, while carrying a balance of over $2000, according to Nellie Mae. 28% percent of students roll over their debt each month.
  • College graduates are finding that they are over $20,000 in debt, according to Creditcards.com.
  • Charles Schwab reported in a 2007 survey that 45% of teens have credit cards but only 26% know how to understand how their fees and interest payments.

Whether we are looking at Generation Y, Echo Boomers, Millenials or any of the other names given to those born after 1982, it is important to understand that they have been raised to expect immediate gratification. Sixty Minutes did a recent feature discussing how companies are even bending over backwards to meet the demands of this high-expectation generation.

If everybody is bending over backward to meet their needs, what is going to happen when they have to be financially responsible for themselves? Why aren’t we bending over backwards to help them learn to be financially independent? We have seen that past generations (their parents) have been poorly educated and are apparently in no position to teach them. If it is not to be taught by parents who are uneducated themselves, where will they get this knowledge?

Currently many colleges and universities are rethinking their position in including personal finance education. Unfortunately these classes are mostly electives or only required by business majors. It costs upward of $6000/year average to pay for a child’s college tuition. What are they getting out of that to prepare them for their adult life?

What can be done?

  • Colleges can create more course offerings to include personal finance education. Within the courses, texts need to be appropriate for all majors. Many colleges offer texts for these courses that are math-intensive, which can turn off the student who is not a math genius.
  • As parents we can help our children by sharing our mistakes and explaining what we ourselves have learned in the process.
  • K-12 Guidelines can be updated to include more specifics as to amount of “time” devoted to the financial literacy information our schools are supposed to be teaching.
  • Personal finance books for younger students could be created in a story-telling format that would allow for them to relate the importance of what they are learning to their own lives.

If future generations are not taught to become financially responsible, who is going to bail them out? Are we going to have to just keep relying on the government to come to the rescue? It certainly isn’t going to be their parents, as they have lost their retirement nest eggs. In fact, their parents may be looking at this generation to take care of them.

Guest post by Diane Hamilton, who has a BS, MA and Ph.D. in Business Management. Her experience includes working in several industries including pharmaceuticals, banking and real estate. She has trained corporations in areas such as time management, emotional intelligence and Myers Briggs. She currently works as an online professor, working for 5 different universities. She teaches mostly business-related courses to bachelor, master and doctoral level students as well as mentors doctoral learners. She is in the process of writing a personal finance book for the young adult. Diane can be reached through www.drdianehamilton.com