Perception and Motivation in Goal Achievement

Perception and Motivation in Goal Achievement

It may be challenging for students to find motivation to reach set goals. People may be intrinsically or extrinsically motivated to succeed.  However, there are different theories about what motivates behavior.  Some people believe that reinforcement is necessary for people to truly feel motivated to change behaviors. Albert Bandura is a name often associated with discussions of motivation and learning.  Bandura is a Canadian psychologist responsible for social learning theory. Along with Skinner, Freud, and Piaget, Bandura is one of the most frequently cited psychologists. Bandura believed that reinforcement alone did not account for all learning or motivation.  He felt people could learn through observation, intrinsic reinforcement, and modeling the behaviors of others. Intrinsic reinforcement occurs when people receive an internal reward, such as pride, satisfaction, and a sense of accomplishment.

Part of wanting to achieve a goal is to have the expectancy of reward associated with that goal.¬† Self-efficacy is another important component that is developed as students feel confidence in performing well. ¬†An article by Nacada.KSU.edu explained the factors associated with motivation include:¬† Intrinsic goal orientation, extrinsic goal orientation, task value, control of learning beliefs, test anxiety, and self-efficacy for learning and performance.¬† The authors noted, ‚ÄúThe self-efficacy construct postulated by Bandura in his social learning theory has guided extensive motivational research.‚ÄĚ

Students must not only be motivated to achieve the goal, but be able to make the goal measurable.¬† The mnemonic ‚ÄúSMART‚ÄĚ is often referred to in goal-setting. SMART stands for Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic and Timely.¬† In the article Set Specific Goals to Increase Success, the author suggests using the following formula in order to make goals measurable:¬† “I will (goal + performance measure) by (specific actions).” If a student wanted to receive an A as their goal, he or she would fill in the blanks with something like this:¬† I will receive an A in BUS101 by studying 2 hours a night Monday through Friday from 6-8 pm.‚Ä̬† Students often will state the goal without remembering to include the steps required to reach that goal.¬† By making the goal measurable, students can measure their progress toward attaining that goal. ¬†This creates a roadmap to achieving the goal.

 

Reaching goals requires motivation. ZenHabits does a nice job of explaining motivation, as well as ways to achieve it and sustain it during times of struggle. ¬†To find out more about motivation, check out the self-motivation quiz from Mindtools. After the quiz, there is a nice explanation of factors involved in self-motivation including:¬† self-confidence and efficacy, positive thinking, focus, and environment. The author from the article How Self-Motivated Are You noted, ‚ÄúSelf-motivation doesn’t come naturally to everyone. And even those who are highly self-motivated need some extra help every now and then. Build your self-motivation by practicing goal-setting skills, and combining those with positive thinking, the creation of powerful visions of success, and the building of high levels of self-efficacy and self-confidence.‚ÄĚ

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Top 18 Personality Theorists Including Freud and More

 

Freud, Jung, Adler and other famous theorists’ names are commonly mentioned, but many people do not¬†know the basis of their important research. Theorists have grappled with¬†understanding¬†factors that may¬†impact personality.¬†¬†Many theorists¬†have dedicated their lives¬†to helping people deal with complex personality-based issues.

In the workplace, it is common to run into personality conflicts.¬† Many of these may be resolved by having a better understanding of personality preferences.¬† It’s Not You It’s Your Personality¬†is a book that defines¬†personality,¬†gives¬†detailed information about¬†personality assessments, and explains how people can use this information to¬†be more effective in the workplace.¬†Personality assessments are based on the work of¬†some very¬†famous theorists. The following chart contains some of the top names in personality research. Click on links provided to find out more about these theorists and the importance of their research.

Top Personality Theorists Theory Top Points and Terminology
Sigmund Freud Psychodynamic Psychosexual Development, Id, Ego, Super-Ego
Carl Jung Psychodynamic Collective Unconscious, True Persona, Introvert-Extrovert
Alfred Adler Psychodynamic Social Urges, Conscious Thoughts, Compensation for Inferiorities, Birth Order
Karen Horney Psychodynamic Biological Influences on Personality Rather  Than Social Forces
Harry Stack Sullivan Psychodynamic Interpersonal Relationships, Social Acceptance and Self-Esteem
John Bowlby Attachment Parent Child Relationships, Social Acceptance and Self-Esteem
Mary Ainsworth Attachment Strange Situation Theory, Observation of Parents
Erik Erikson Psychosocial Child’s Trust Relationship With Mother, Early Development
Carl Rogers Psychosocial Humanistic Theory Based on Subjective Experiences, Self-Understanding
John Watson Behavioral Environmental Impact on Behavior
Ivan Pavlov Behavioral Pavlov’s Dog, Classical Conditioning, Temperament
B. F. Skinner Behavioral Operant Conditioning, Rewards and Punishments for Behaviors
George Kelly Cognitive Self-Reflection, Perception and Interpretation Impact on Behavior
Albert Bandura Social Learning Human Capabilities, Structural Framework, Thinking Processes
Walter Mischel Social Learning Social Variables Explain Human Complexities, Delayed Gratification
Gordon Allport Trait Focus on Positive, Traits are Permanent
Raymond Cattell Trait Factor Analytic Trait Theory, 16 Source Traits Including Temperament and Dynamic, State and Roles Determine Personality
Hans Eysenck Trait Three Factor Theory, Introversion-Extroversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism