Professors may assume that students understand the basics when it comes to writing college research papers. In reality, many students are frustrated by all of the requirements. There are not a lot of easy checklists that put all of the requirements into one location. The following checklist should be used as a helpful guide to help college students write a well-researched and properly presented paper.
Write in introduction/body/conclusion format
- Introduction – The first paragraph introduces what will be included in the paper. It is a good idea to have the first sentence of the first paragraph include a hook to interest the reader. Students should list a few sentences that summarize the main topics that will be addressed in the paper. In this example, assume that three things will be covered based on the assignment requirements. End the introductory paragraph with the thesis statement.
- Body – The body is where the three things, required for the assignment, are addressed. Students should start each paragraph with a topic sentence. Students should write a few sentences about that topic. Students should end that paragraph with a transitional sentence that leads into the next topic that will be addressed in the following paragraph. This process should be completed for all paragraphs until the last paragraph.
- Conclusion – The last paragraph may begin with something like, “In conclusion”. This last paragraph will sum up the three topics addressed. The last sentence should restate the thesis statement listed in the introduction, and end with some sort of final prediction or conclusion.
Write in complete paragraphs – Paragraphs should ideally contain between 4-8 sentences. Students often make the mistake of writing in incomplete paragraphs or overly long paragraphs. Click here for more information about paragraph structure.
Avoid run-on sentences – Sentences should not be overly complex. Students should check how many times the word “and” is used. This may signal a run-on sentence.
Write in APA format – Set up papers that include a title page, double-spacing, indented paragraphs, page numbers, correctly cited sources, etc. per APA.
Research the paper through the school’s library – Students often make the mistake of researching through the use of Google or other popular search engines. Students may also make the mistake of relying on sources that are less than scholarly. Sites like Wikipedia may offer some good information but they are not considered reliable or scholarly sources for research papers. Students should use the school’s search engine, located in the online library. Students should click the box that searches for scholarly, peer-reviewed journals to ensure the sources are appropriate.
Cite consistently and correctly throughout the paper – Students often make the mistake of thinking they are story-telling when they should be demonstrating research. Students should get into the habit of paraphrasing rather than listing direct quotations. Students should avoid patchworking. Students should not make the mistake of listing references without citations. This is a common mistake. Research papers require both citations AND references. Students should also not make the mistake of simply ending a paraphrased paragraph with (author last name, year) to cite all information covered in the paragraph. This is also a common mistake and can be considered plagiarism. Every sentence of paraphrased work requires the author and year information. Click here for information about how to cite.
Submit the paper to TurnItIn – Many schools offer TurnItIn’s plagiarism checker. This is an excellent tool that is helpful to both the students and the schools. Students should get in the habit of submitting his or her papers through this software program to insure that they are not inadvertently plagiarizing information.
Check narrative mode – Many courses do not allow students to write in first person. If this is the case, students should not refer to themselves. Students should look for words like I, we, us, me. These words should not be included if the paper does not allow first person.
Check Word document format – Students often overlook the settings in the Word document. Students should be sure that the font, margins and settings are correctly set to APA requirements.
Check spelling and other miscellaneous issues – Students should read the final draft more than once. Even if everything seemed OK in the paper, it is a good idea, for students to read it several times to look for small errors. Students should check for spacing issues. Students should also check that there are two spaces after periods per APA. Students should spell-check the document to be sure all spelling issues are resolved.